Dr. Martin's notes

Tuesday September 27, 2016

Graphic of the Circulatory System

The pulmonary system consists of the trachea, bronchi and the lungs. The lungs are the essential organ of respiration, and are the area of the body where oxygen is replaced in the blood (reoxygenation).

Air enters the lungs and goes into the smaller channels to the very small alveoli where oxygen is transferred through small cappilaries into the bloodstream in the hemoglobin molecules. An exchange of carbon products occurs and you exhale CO2.

Types of respiratory activity are:
Apnea (a temporary cessation of breathing)
Dyspnea (difficult breathing),
Orthopnea (unable to breathe in a horizontal position),
Hyperpnena (increased depth of breathing) and
Tachypnea (excessively rapid and shallow breathing).

Artificial respiration or Cardio Pulmonary Resucitation (CPR) which consists of mouth to mouth resucitation and external heart massage is considered the superior to all means of emergency care for those who have ceased to breathe. The AMA endorsed AR in 1958.

The lymphatic system consists of lymph capillaries, lyphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts and lymph nodes. The lymph is a clear to milky white fluid, similar to blood plasma, and is rich in white blood cells, particularly lymphocytes..

Lymph nodes are small oval bodies along intervals in the course of lymphatic vessels. Lymph passes through several groups of nodes before entering the blood, receiving lymphocytes, globulin and antibodies. These products all help to fight disease in the body, especially in the bloodstream. Lymph nodes can quarantine malignant or inflammatory products in the blood, while producing immune products for the body.

Closely related organs are the spleen, tonsils and thymus (located in the chest between the sternum and aorta.)

The endocrine system is the glands in the body that produce hormones. A hormone is a chemical substance that controls, or helps to control, some function elsewhere in the body. Common endocrine glands: Pancreas (insulin), Ovary (estrogen), Testes (testosterone), Suprarenal (adrenalin), Thyroid & Parathyroid (thyroxin), Hypophysis {Pituitary} (Oxytocin & Vasopressin)(STH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, ICSH and TSH) and Pineal (adenohypophyseal function) STH is also known as HGH