Dr. Martin's notes

Monday September 26, 2016

Graphic of the Circulatory System

Portal, Renal and Pulmonary systems
The Portal system is one of the filtering systems (for blood) in the body.
The liver receives blood from the hepatic artery (20%) and the portal vein (80%) from the spleen, stomach, pancreas and intestines.

Blood leaves the liver by the hepatic vein, which then empties into the vena cava.
The liver is the largest organ in the body.

It removes old and worn out erethrocytes (red blood cells) and removes bacteria and foreign bodies via its Kupffer cells (a kind of macrophage). It functions in detoxification by changing nitrogenous wastes into less toxic urea.

It also aids in digestion by production of of bile (500-1000 ml daily) which is stored in the gall bladder.
The liver also serves as a storage are for glycogen, Vit. A,D,E, K and B12.

Cirrhosis of the liver is degeneration characterized by an increase in connective tissue growth within the liver.

The Renal (urinary) system consists of two kidneys and their vascular attachments, the ureters and the urinary bladder. The main function of the renal system is to clean out the blood of unwanted waste products, usually in the form of urea.

The kidneys are located in the posterior portion of the torso, approximately centered around the T9-10 area right under the diaphragm. The kidneys accept blood through the renal artery and through a series of small cappillaries (called nephrons) where the transfer of waste products occur. The cleansed blood is then put back into the system through the renal vein into the vena cava.

The kidneys can be stimulated by excitement, caffeine, and heavy exercise. Too much filtration leads to electrolyte loss.

GRAPHIC- Full body circulation