Dr. Martin's notes

Thursday September 22, 2016

Splanchnology - Day 2


Spleen:
Lies in the left upper abdomen, beneath the diaphragm
Has five functions
1.) blood destruction of old cells
2.) blood production by stim bone marrow
3.) Immunologic production of antibodies and lymphatic tissues for lymphocytes
4.) Blood storage to regulate volume
5.) blood filtration of microorganisms
You can survive without a spleen, but diseases of the spleen can affect many other important body functions.
Stomach:
Sits under the diaphragm, next to the liver, mostly on the left. The esophagus passes through the diaphragm with the major blood vessels in an airtight seal. If this tears, there is a Hiatal Hernia. The stomach is a storage vessel for food and is the beginning area for digestion. It empties into the small intestine, at the duodenum.
Pancreas:
It sits under and is surrounded by the stomach. It's main function is to secrete insulin, which is formed in the Islets of Langerhans. Insulin regulates the body's ability to metabolize sugars for energy and muscle/nerve/brain function.
Small intestine:
Located in the lower abdomen, it is approximately 18 feet in length and is where major digestion takes place. It empties into the large intestine in the lower right quadrant at the cecum. The intestines are covered by a large membrane, the mesentery.
Large intestine:
The large intestine starts at the lower right quadrant with the cecum, to which the appendix is attached. It then goes upward, curves left and crosses transversely across the division of the quadrants, and then decends on the left side, emptying into the recturm for expulsion. Final digestion takes place in the large intestine. (mention McBurney's point)