Dr. Martin's notes

Tuesday September 20, 2016

Splanchnology- Day 1

Splanchnology is the study of organs, generally in the abdominal cavity.
We will also be including Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat
Eyes: Eye 1 Eye 2
Sclera - White part with blood vessels
Iris - Colored section
Pupil - Hole in iris through which you can view retina
Lens- clear tissue behind the iris which focuses images (cloudy in cataracts)
Retina - lining in the back of eye which transmits images to brain
Lacrimal duct/gland - Tears
Conjunctiva - thin membrane lines inner surface of each eye and eyelid (conjunctivitis - "Pink Eye")
Ear:
External ear - part we see
External acoustic meatus - Ear Canal
Eardrum at the end of canal - can be seen with light source- should be pinky white
Internal bones - Auditory ossicles - malleus,incus,stapes connect to
Labyrinth - filled with fluid that vibrates and sends signals to brain (AKA cochlea, but that is only a part)
Balance is here also in the semicircular canals
Nose:
Mostly cartilage, connects to two nasal bones
Openings go into olfactory sinuses which send signals to brain (along with taste)
Tongue and throat:
Tongue connected with frenulum
Pharynx is tube that connects nose to throat
Larynx is voice box
Epiglottis controls what goes into trachea for lungs or esophagus for stomach
Lungs:
Trachea breaks into smaller branches called bronchia
Left lung has two lobes, right has three (left has space for heart)
Under lungs is diaphragm muscle
Heart:
Lies in the upper abdomen, above the diaphragm. Has four chambers, two atria (the atrium) and two ventricles. The atrium are the chambers where blood comes in and the ventricles are the chambers from where the blood is pumped out. Blood comes in through the Vena Cava into the right atrium, goes to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the lungs. It comes back into the heart from the pulmonary vein, into the left atrium and passes into the left ventricle, where it is then pumped out into the aorta.
Liver & Gallbladder:
Lies underneath diaphragm just under lungs, mostly on the right side (stomach on left)
Has four lobes - filters blood and secretes bile into the Gall Bladder, which sits under it