Dr. Martin's notes

Thursday Sept. 8, 2016


Motor unit =Articular facets (two opposing joints) with synovial capsules connected with ligaments and muscles
Synovial Capsule, Synovial fluid (joint oil)
Pubic symphysis
Capsular ligaments

Lower spine articulates with the Sacrum
Sacrum - Flat bone
Triangular shaped, has irregular sides (like an interlocking puzzle) and a smooth top
Curved shape, like cupping of the hand
Held into place by two small ligaments and gravity (Keystone mechanism)
Interlocks with illiac bones. Articulation known as the Sacroilliac joint or SI joint
Illiac bones (2) articulate with sacrum, with each other and upper leg bone (femur) on each side
Can twist apart or separate at SI joint or at pubic symphysis
Has a large foramen in each, the obturator, and large notch in the back (sciatic notch)
Fossa (socket) where femur meets illium is Acetabulum (this is the hip socket)
There are three landmarks, the Post. Superior Illiac Spine, the Anterior SIS and the pubic crest (stand up and feel these)
The sacrum and illiac bones make up the pelvis or pelvic cavity.

Femur - Long bone (latin word for "thigh" is femur)
Head artic. with illiac, Neck attaches to shaft (diaphysis), which has large protrusion, the trochanter. There are two condyles on the distal end for knee joint. (lateral and medial condyles)
All of the large protrusions are for attachments of large (strong) leg muscles and supportive ligaments

Patella - Sesamoid bone
This is the kneecap, and is suspended between two large tendons of the quadriceps femoris muscle. It artic. only with the femur in the patellar groove.

Tibia - Long bone
Weight bearing bone of the lower leg, makes up lower half of knee joint at the proximal end
On the distal end, it has a protrusion which makes up the inside of the ankle (medial malleolus) and articulates with the calcaneous of the foot. (mortice joint). It artic. with the fibula on the lateral side just below the knee and at the ankle.

Fibula - Long bone
This is a non-weight bearing bone, who's main purpose is for attachment of muscles. The distal end makes up the outside of the ankle (lateral malleolus). It does not articulate with any other bone but the tibia.

Tarsal (foot) bones - irregular bones
Two main bones are Talus, which artic with tibia and the Calcaneus which is the heel bone.

Metatarsals - short bones
These bones connect the tarsals to the phalanges and make up the arch of the foot. These can be injured by stepping on the foot and can consist of bruising, sprain of the joint and fracture.

Phalanges - short bones
These are the bones of the toes. All but the large toe (which has only two) there are proximal, medial and distal phalanges. Broken or dislocated toes are common. Turf toe occurs when the toe is jammed into the joint and torques the joint in such a way that the joint cannot flex properly.