Dr. Martin's notes

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

When finishing your plan, understand the three types of muscle contraction:
Isometric, Concentric (positive or flexion) and Ecentric (negative or extension)

Isometrics are when the muscle contracts but there is no change in the muscle length (no movement).
Concentric contraction is when the muscle shortens while being worked.
Ecentric contraction is when there is tension on extension, i.e. the muscle is being lengthened.

Isometric exercise is often used for rehabilitation because the exact area of muscle weakness can be isolated and strengthening can be administered at the proper joint angle. This kind of training provides a relatively quick and convenient method for overloading and strengthening muscles, without the need for any special, equipment and with little chance of injury. Static exercise improves strength but also increases blood pressure quickly. People with circulation problems and high blood pressure should avoid strenuous isometric exercises. During isometric exercises muscles contract, but there is no motion in the affected joints. The muscle fibers maintain a constant length throughout the entire contraction. Isometric exercises are usually performed against an immovable surface or object, such as pressing the hand against the wall. The muscles of the arm are contracting, but the wall is not reacting or moving as a result of the physical effort.

Dynamic or isotonic exercise differs from isometric exercise in that there is movement of the joint during the muscle contraction. A classic example of an isotonic exercise is weight training with dumbbells and barbells. Calisthenics are also isotonic exercises. These include chin-ups, push-ups, and sit-ups, all of which use body weight as the resistance force. Blood circulation strength and endurance are improved by these continuous movements

Manual resistance training is a form of dynamic exercise that is accomplished with a training partner. The training partner assists by adding resistance to the lift as the lifter works the muscles through the full range of motion. The training partner, or spotter, adds enough resistance to allow the lifter to fatigue the muscles, and then releases enough resistance so that the lift can be completed.

Advantages of manual resistance training are:
It requires minimal equipment
The spotter can help control technique
Workouts can be completed in less than 30 minutes
Training can be done anywhere.
The disadvantages are that a spotter is required, and both the lifter and spotter must be trained so that the exercise will be safe and effective.

Isokinetic exercise uses machines that control the speed of contraction within the range of motion. Isokinetic exercise attempts to combine the best features of both isometrics and weight training. It provides muscular overload at a constant, pre-set speed while the muscle mobilizes its force through the full range of motion. For example, when an isokinetic stationary bicycle is set at 90 revolutions per minute, no matter how hard and fast the exerciser works, the isokinetic properties of the bicycle will allow the exerciser to complete only 90 revolutions per minute.

Circuit training is an excellent way to improve strength and stamina. Circuit training utilizes 6 to 10 strength exercises that are completed as a circuit, one exercise after another. Each exercise on the circuit is performed for a specified number of repetitions or a specific period of time before moving on to the next exercise. Each exercise is separated by a brief, timed rest interval. If more than one circuit is to be completed, the circuits will be separated by a longer rest period. The total number of circuits performed may vary depending on the athlete's training level.

Techniques of Resistance Training
Isometrics are the best to start out as they will not damage the affected areas. The muscles can be worked with constant tension while developing strength. It can be repeated up to 10 times per day.
Progressive Resistance Exercise uses weights and weight machines as well as specialized weight machines to work the muscles through their ranges of motion and to increase overload with both concentric and ecentric contraction.


Strength training is a highly adaptive process whereby the body changes in response to increased training loads. Adaptation is the whole purpose of strength training. Adaptation requires a systematic application of exercise stress. The stress should be sufficient to stimulate muscle fatigue, but not so severe that breakdown and injury occur.

Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable. If a muscle is worked beyond its normal limits, it adapts and becomes larger, or hypertrophies. In doing so, the muscle improves its strength, allowing it to accommodate an increased workload. The reverse is also true. If a muscle is worked less than normal, it atrophies, or becomes smaller, and therefore cannot accommodate the workload it once did.
The purpose of progressive resistance exercise is to allow the body to adapt to the increased demand placed upon it by training. The nature of the muscles adapting must always be considered when designing the training program. Factors that determine the rate and type of strength gains include overload, specificity, reversibility, and individual differences.

Muscles increase in strength and size when they are forced to contract at tensions close to maximum. Muscles must be overloaded to improve strength. If consistent gains in strength are to occur, muscles must be overloaded at a progressively increased rate.

Studies have found that the ideal number of repetitions is between four and eight. These repetitions should be done in multiple sets of three or more. Strength gains are less when either fewer or greater numbers of repetitions are used. It is important to include proper rest intervals between sets. Muscles adapt specifically to the nature of the work performed. This is known as specificity.

Slow-twitch fibers are relatively fatigue-resistant; Fast-twitch fibers an contract more rapidly and forcefully, but also fatigue rapidly. High-repetition, low-intensity exercise, such as distance running, uses mainly slow-twitch fibers. Low-repetition, high-intensity activity, such as weight training, causes hypertrophy of fast-twitch fibers, though there will also be some changes to the lower threshold slow-twitch fibers. Not all sports have preferred fiber characteristics. For example, world-class shot-putters show surprisingly diverse muscle fiber composition. Having a high percentage of fast-twitch fibers is not necessarily critical for success. Many strength athletes have a higher fast-to-slow twitch fiber ratio than sedentary persons or endurance athletes

Study the following weight work:
Bench Press -Incline Press -Military Press- Clean and Jerk -Shoulder rotation (on floor)-
Flys -Bent-Over rows -Bicep curls -Tricep extension

The Variation principle refers to modification in the type, speed, sequence and duration. It combats boredom and works the total muscle. You can change body positions, change types of weights, change direction of pull, etc.

The Specificity principle relates to me type of sport for which the athlete is preparing.

For example: Arm and rotator cuff for Baseball, Volleyball, Swimming
Leg, foot and low back for sprinters, track and cross country
Neck flexibility for football linemen
Exercises that closely resemble the motion of the athletic performance will improve one's ability

Correct muscle preparation and exercise
A goal sheet should be prepared for every athlete, stating the starting point and the goal to be reached. This chart should be marked each time the athlete works out, and should be reviewed periodically. If the goal is flexibility, then stretching is of the primary concern for their workout. More reps with light weights are the preferred method.

If the goal is increased endurance, you would increase repetition, sometimes to the point of fatigue.
If the goal is to strengthen the muscle, the maximum amount of weight tolerable with less reps is the plan.

As the athlete becomes stronger, they notice less resistance. This is the point it is appropriate to increase the amount of weight. Increase in sets and reps can also be accomplished.

The proper amount of weight is essential. Small muscle groups (and females) are increased by 2 1/2 pound increments, while large muscle groups (and males) are increased by 5 pound increments.

Weights should be performed AFTER practice sessions or on an off day. Weight training following practice causes injury if perfomed three hours or less after a practice.