Dr. Martin's notes

Thursday February 23, 2017

There are three foot arches: Transverse, Medial longitudinal and Lateral longitudinal.
These three arches allow for spring and flexibility in movement of the lower leg and ankle.

The ankle joint is made up of three bones, the Tibia, Fibula and the Talus. The lateral protrusion of the ankle is the fibula and the medial protrusion is the tibia. The tibia and talus are the weight bearing bones and transfer the weight of the body into the calcaneus (heel bone) and into the other tarsal bones of the foot. The weight is then transferred into the metatarsals and phalanges (toes). The ankle joint is often called the mortice joint.

The bones of the foot are the talus, calcaneus, medial, intermediate, and latereal cuneiforms, navicular and cuboid. Ligaments of the foot are named by the bones they attach together.

The INTRINSIC muscles of the lower leg are flexors and go into the foot and toes.
The EXTRINSIC muscles of the lower leg do not go to the foot and are mostly for extension.