Dr. Martin's notes

Friday February 17, 2017


The heart's electrical system is called the cardiac conduction system.

When the heart beats, that is the SYSTOLIC pressure. Normal for an adult is 120 mm
When the heart is at rest, it is the DIASTOLIC pressure. Normal is 80 mm

The difference between the two is the PULSE PRESSURE.

Blood pressure is measured when the heart beats (systolic pressure) and when the heart is at rest (diastolic pressure). The average for an adult is 120/80. (normal variation +/- 10 for systolic, +/-5 for diastolic). Along with this, the normal heart rate (pulse) is 68-72.

In young children, the heart rate will be higher and the BP will be lower.

For protection from blood borne pathogens, you need to isolate the body from all bodily fluids, especially blood, vomit, sputum, semen and vaginal secretions. Any or all of these can transmit diseases from one person to another.

The first line of defense is gloves. There are two types, latex and nitrite. Protective eyewear and a surgical mask should be worn where bodily fluids could be projected or spurted from the body. Remember, all of these are biohazards and need to be disposed of properly.

OSHA (the Occupational Safety and Health Administration) makes the rules for blood borne pathogen protection. Their basic rules are called the “Standard Procedures” (see page 291)

Wounds are to be cared for as per Red Cross first aid training. Gloves, wash the wound then compression with clean gauze bandage. Wrap and reapply if bleeding does not stop.

Bleeding can be of three types, arterial (spurting), venous (strong and steady) or capillary (slow and steady-most wounds).