Dr. Martin's notes

Wednesday February 15, 2017

The articular system has a series of movements:

Flexion
Extension
Hyperextension (cause of most athletic injuries)
Adduction
Abduction
Internal Rotation
External Rotation
Circumduction

Movement toward the prone aspect of the body is pronation
Away from the body is supination
These terms come from the anatomical positions of prone (face down) and supine (face up).

Elevation occurs in the frontal plane, lifting the body part superior
Depression is the opposite movement, bringing the body part inferior.

The foot/ankle has special classifications:

Inversion: turning the sole of the foot inward
Eversion: Turning the sole of the foot outward (laterally)
Dorsiflexion: Flexes the foot bringing the toes toward the leg
Plantar flexion: extends the foot, toes pointing away

Injuries to the articular structure

Many of the injuries to the articular structure come from long term repetative motion such as tennis elbow.
Most of these cause Pain, Swelling and Inflammation.
In the bursa of the joint, PSI is called bursitis. In the muscle it is myositis.

When the bone is injured, the body responds by sending bone cells (osteocytes) to the area for repair. Too many osteocytes and you can develop degenerative arthritis. This is not to be confused with Rheumatoid Arthritis, which is a disease process. Other types of arthritis are Primary Fibrositis, Osteoarthritis and gout.