Dr. Martin's notes

Tuesday December 13, 2016

Nutritional Deficiencies

Water is an essential nutrient. You will die in a few days without water.
The body is made up of 60% water
Water is needed for energy production, digestion, cell production, and to keep the body from overheating.
MINIMUM amount of water per day is 2.5 liters (almost 3 quarts) or 10 glasses per day.
You feel thirsty when you lose 1-2 % of your body water
Loss of more causes DEHYDRATION, revealed by nausea, lack of energy, fainting, weakness and vomiting
Don't rely on thirst
Most replace only 50% of what they lose in sweat.
Electrolytes are lost during physical activity.
They include: Sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, and calcium electrically charged ions.
Loss of electrolytes leads to muscle cramping.
Sports drinks can replenish electrolytes and are often better than water, because water "turns off" your thirst before you are complete rehydrated. The flavors also make it more palatable, and it is more effective than water alone.
The optimal level of electrolytes is 14 grams per 8 ounces.
Carbs make up the major proportion of short term energy. When the activity is prolonged, fats and carbs are used fairly equally.
Endurance athletes use between 10-15% of their energy from protein.
Proper nutrition is based on the food pyramid (see diagram in book Figure 5-3)
Junk foods are classified as those that have too many calories from fats and sugars.
All nutrients have a Recommended Dietary Allowance.
Megadoses of vitamins may not help performance or endurance. Calcium intake may be lacking in athletes who do not consume dairy products, red meats or bread/cereals (because they believe they will gain weight).
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. For females, a history of osteoporosis, demands supplementation of calcium.
(describe the different kinds of calcium)
Inability to intake milk is due to a lack of the enzyme LACTASE, that is necessary to digest lactose (milk sugar).
Protein Supplements are believed by most athletes to build larger muscle structure. Although protein is necessary, it has not been shown that additional proteins will build muscle size. Normal increase of 1-1.5 grams of protein per Kg (2.2 lbs) will be sufficient if trying to build muscle mass. (This is approximately double the RDA of protein)
Sugars taken for energy in honey, candy bars or pure sugar may be helpful in giving immediate energy. If fatigue sets in, do not repeat, as it is negatively affecting insulin levels. Too much fructose (fruit sugar) can cause intestinal problems and diarrhea.
Caffeine is a CNS stimulant and is used to decrease fatigue. Too much caffeine cause diuretic effects, nervousness, increased heart rate, irritability and headaches. It may enhance the use of fat for energy and appears to make calcium more available during muscle contraction.
Alcohol is a CNS depressant and leads to decreased physical coordination, slowed reaction time and decreased mental alertness. It also has a diuretic effect.
Organic foods are grown without pesticides or fertilizers. Natural foods and organic foods have not been shown to increase athletic perfomance, but may be beneficial to overall health.